Properties of pine wood | Pine species and uses (2023)



Pino(Pino)It belongs to the family of trees known as conifers. Conifers are a group of cone seed plants. Pine leaves are thin and needle-like in appearance. It is usually found in a variety of locations in Northern, Central, and Eastern Europe.

The pines are evergreen. Pine would be considered a softwood. This makes it softer than hardwood. But that doesn't mean it's weaker than hardwood. Pine trees are long-lived. Depending on their location and atmosphere, they typically reach an age of 100 to 1,000 years.

There are more than 126 classified pine species. Almost all pine species are close together. They differ slightly in color, hardness, workability and resistance to decay. They are used for their properties.

Pine wood is known for its availability, durability, workability and great looks. YourSplintit is yellowish white to reddish white, and the heartwood is reddish brown.

#pine forest
Scientific namepino
HerzYellowish or whitish to reddish brown
Height3-80 m (10-260 weight) tall
machinabilityGood machinability with hand and machine tools.
sophisticationGood processing qualities
AvailabilityIt is readily available in many regions.
durabilityGood durability for indoor use and generally good for outdoor use
pine usedFurniture, window frames, panelling, floors and ceilings

pine wood used

Properties of pine wood | Pine species and uses (1)

Pine wood can be a great option for furniture projects. It is known for its rigidity and impact resistance even after softwood. Many carpenters prefer knotty pine and plywood. Although it can be a bit expensive compared to plywood.

Hardness, colour, impact resistance and grain are essential characteristics for better furniture. All these properties can be found in pine wood. However, some species of pine are considered unsuitable for furniture. But most pines are suitable.

2. Framework and finishes

Because it is a soft pine wood, it is very easy to work with. Therefore, it is considered suitable for door and window frames, baseboards, cabinet rails, chair rails and picture frames.

It is very important to have the good workability of wood for frames and finishes. Small hand tools and machines are used for this. Which is usually a bit difficult with other hardwoods.

3. Floors and roofs

In general, most people prefer hardwood for flooring. But pressure-treated pine can also be a cost-effective option. With regular care, their lifespan can be around 15 years or more.

The roof is constantly exposed to the weather and the subsoil. In this case, it is also very important that it is resistant to rot and deterioration of the wood. Pines do not have very good insect resistance or post-logging rot resistance. sopressure treated pineIt is the best choice for outdoor woodworking projects.

Pressure treated pine has many advantages, it is more resistant to moisture, mould, insects, fire and more durable than regular pine. However, the price is slightly higher than ordinary pine, but lower than many other hardwoods.

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4. Ornamental and foodstuffs

Many dwarf and magnificent pine species are present. Used as ornamental trees in parks and larger gardens. Pines are also grown and harvested commercially for Christmas trees in many countries.

Some species of pine give off large numbers of seeds called "pine nuts". It is commercially available for cooking and baking.

Pros and cons of pine wood

Advantages of pine wood.


Light wood has good processing properties. It can be easily moved from one place to another and can be easily worked at high altitudes.

If we talk about eastern white pine, it weighs around 400 kg/m3 (25 lbs/ft3) and southern yellow pine around 650 kg/m3 (41 lbs/ft3). This is less than many other softwoods and hardwoods.

2. Great workability

Pine is loved by many carpenters for its excellent workability. Because your projects are finished very quickly. It is easy to work with hand and power tools. It sticks and gives a good finish.

When working with pine, there is no need to pre-drill nails and screws. This saves a lot of time on a large project. Many woodworkers say that when working with hardwood, blades often have to be changed, which is a huge waste of time.

3. Durability

Many people think that softwood is less durable than hardwood. But that's not 100% correct. Since it is a soft and hard wood, its durability cannot be estimated.

Pine wood is a durable commodity, but its use also matters. Pine wood is not suitable for outdoor use. But still, if you intend to use pine for exterior applications, always choose pressure-treated pine for its other great quality.

4. Attractive pimples

The pine is light in color with a medium texture and tight grain. Due to the light color, the stain takes on the desired color more easily. It darkens over time.

5. Preis

Pine is cheap. It is available at a lower price than many other softwoods and hardwoods on the market. There are many reasons for the low price of wood, such as high availability and rapid growth. Because of this, the cost of transportation is not high. While the export price of other rare woods increases from one country to another.

6. Availability

It is mainly found in northern, central and eastern Europe, but many tree species are also grown in many other places. Scotch Pine and Australian Pine are fast growing trees, the growth rate is about 1 to 2 feet per year. So that your needs can be met easily.

Disadvantages of pine wood

1.scratches and dents

Finally, pine is a softwood, so it also has some of the disadvantages of softwood like it scratches and dents easily. Although hardwood is less of a problem.

There are many reasons for scratches and dents. But the main reason is the low hardness, the hardness of pine wood is not much. Like the eastern white pine, it has 380 lbf (1,690 N) and the southern yellow pine has a Janka hardness of 870 lbf (4,120 N). Which is not enough to withstand dents and scratches.

2. Defects

Most pine wood is defective because it rots easily. High-quality to medium-weight wood is best for furniture, and high-quality wood is considered best for flooring and exterior applications. for which you have to pay more.

3. Necessary maintenance and care

Pine wood requires regular maintenance. It does not support moisture for a long time. It begins to warp and crack from constant exposure to the sun. If a part is rotten, remove it immediately and lubricate and wax it regularly. Always use lukewarm water for cleaning.

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types of pine trees

Properties of pine wood | Pine species and uses (2)

1.Pino Blanco (Pinus Strobus)

White pine is native to eastern North America. It grows well in well-drained or sandy soil. The white pine is the most common pine species. It has low density, fine texture and uniform grain. Eastern White Pine has 380 lbf (1690 N) and Western White Pine has a Janka hardness of 420 lbf (1870 N). Therefore, it does not have a good density.

Its trees are 65 to 150 feet tall with a trunk diameter of 2 to 5 feet. It is highly preferred for its light brown color and grain pattern. It is mainly used for furniture, woodworking, boat building, carpentry, furniture and interior design.

2. Austrian pine (Pinus nigra)

The Austrian stone pine is found in the southern Mediterranean region of Europe and in Asia Minor. Its trees are between 20 and 55 meters (66 to 180 ft) tall. The cone fruits come in May and June and the cone is 5-11 cm long.

The color of its wood is pale yellow to light reddish brown. Austrian pine has a Janka hardness of 660 lbf (2920 N). It is commonly used for paper (shredded wood), boxes/cages, and lumber.

3. Caribbean Pine (Pinus caribaea)

The Caribbean pine is native to Central America, Cuba, the Bahamas and the Turks and Caicos Islands. Its trees are about 20–30 m tall with a trunk diameter of 0.6–1 m. Its Janka hardness is 1110 lbf (4920 N). that's double the Austrian stone pine. It is used in paper (pulpwood), veneer, plywood, flooring and lumber.

4. Pino Jack (Pinus banksiana)

Jack Pine is native to Canada and the northern United States. It grows to about 9–22 m in height with a trunk diameter of 0.3–0.6 m. It is yellowish-white and orange-brown in colour.

Jack Pine has a straight grain with medium texture and excellent workability. Typically used for paper (pulp), boxes/cage, pallets, bars and lumber.

5. Pino de Jeffrey (Pinus jeffreyi)

Jeffrey Pine, also known as Yellow Pine and Black Pine, is native to California and northern Mexico. Its tree is 25–40 m (82–131 ft) tall and its trunk diameter is 2–4 ft (0.6–1.2 m).

She has a straight bud with medium texture. Its color varies from yellowish white to reddish brown. It is used for veneers, plywood, paneling, undersides, boxes, drawers, interior panels, cabinets and lumber.

6. Pinheiro Khasi (Pinus caesia)

Khasi pain is found throughout most of Asia. Its tree is 30 to 40 m tall and has a trunk diameter of 1 to 1.2 m. The color of its wood is reddish brown to pale yellow. It is used for paper (pulpwood), boxes/cages, furniture, and lumber.

7. Pinheiro Limber (Pinus flexilis)

The nimble pine is native to the western mountains of the United States, Mexico, and Canada. Its tree is between 20 and 25 meters (65 to 80 feet) tall. The flexible wood varies in color from pale yellow to light brown. Its color becomes dark brown with age.

It is used for firewood, boxes and shell construction. It is considered not suitable for furniture. Because it is very soft (430 lbf (1910 N) Janka hardness) and light (28 lbs/ft3 (450 kg/m3)).

8. Loblolly-Kiefer

Loblolly is native to the southeastern United States. It has a tree length of about 100–115 ft (30–35 m) and a trunk diameter of 1.5–5 ft (0.4–1.5 m). This species of pine is mainly found in lowlands and swampy areas. Loblolly tree size is 30–35 m (98–115 ft) with a trunk diameter of 1.5–5 ft (0.4–1.5 m).

Its heartwood is reddish brown to yellowish white in color and the grain is straight with an even texture. It is a versatile wood used for roof framing, posts, beams, pilings and many other applications.

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9. Twisted pine (Pinus contorta)

Lodgepole pines are primarily found in western North America. The other name for Pinus contorta is Shore Pine. This tree attains a height of 40–50 m (130–160 ft) and a trunk diameter of 0.3–0.6 m (1–2 ft).

Its wood is reddish brown/yellow in color and is used for veneers, plywood, paneling, undersides, boxes, drawers, posts, interior panels, cabinets and lumber.

10. Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris)

Longleaf Pine is native to the southeastern United States. It reaches 100-115 feet (30-35 m) in height and 2-3 feet (0.6-1 m) in diameter. The color of the wood varies from reddish brown to yellowish white. Its Janka hardness is 870 lbf (4120 N).

Longleaf Pine is a better choice for interior applications, while pressure treated wood is suitable for exterior applications.

11. Seekiefer (Pinus pinaster)

The maritime pine is native to the Mediterranean region. It is a medium-sized tree, up to 20-35 m tall with a trunk diameter of up to 0.6-1.2 m.

The wood is light reddish brown to pale yellow to almost white. The color darkens with age. It is a very soft wood with a Janka hardness of 390 lbf (1740 N) and a dry weight of 31 lbs/ft3 (500 kg/m3).

Maritime pine has good general processability and is used for paper (pulpwood), flooring, boxes/cages, and lumber.

12. Ocote-Kiefer (Pinus oocarpa)

The Ocote pine is native to Mexico and Central America. It is known by many other names such as Yellow Pine, Hazel Pine, and Mexican Yellow Pine. Its heartwood is light brown and the sapwood is pale yellowish-white to white.

Tree length is about 24–35 m (80–115 ft) and trunk diameter is 0.6–1 m (2–3 ft). Ocote pine is used in paper (pulpwood), veneers, plywood, boxes/cages, flooring and lumber.

13. Pinos Patula (Pinus patula)

The Patula pine is native to the highlands of Mexico. Its tree is 100 to 130 feet (30 to 40 m) long and the trunk diameter is about 2 to 3 feet (0.6 to 1 m). It is softwood with a Janka hardness of 550 lbf (2450 N). Patula Pine Wood is used in the manufacture of Paper (Pulp) and Boxes/Cages.

14. Kiefer (Pinus edulis)

The stone pine is native to southwestern North America. It produces pine nuts and contains fat and calories. Tree length is about 9–15 m (30–50 ft) and trunk diameter is 0.3–0.6 m (1–2 ft).

There are many branches in the tree, so there are many nodes in it. It has an irregular grain with a medium to fine texture. It is used for firewood, paper (pulp) and charcoal.

15. Pine Pine (Pinus rigide)

The pitch pine is native to eastern North America. It is a small tree about (6 to 30 m or 20 to 98 ft) in length. Its Janka hardness is 620 lbf (2760 N). But it is very strong and can withstand heavy loads. It is used for bridges, beams, posts and railway sleepers.

Its heartwood is reddish brown and the sapwood is yellowish white and straight-grained.

Janka Dureza de Pinheiros

Properties of pine wood | Pine species and uses (3)
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How do you recognize pine wood?

Wood can be identified by its color and grain. The color of the heartwood of pine is light brown to reddish brown and the color of the sapwood is pale yellow and sometimes white. Its color darkens over time. Pine wood has many dark brown circular knots. Which gives them special recognition.

Pine has a straight grain with a medium, even texture. The pine has a medium sized open grain. Therefore, it is very easy to work with. But due to the open grain, it absorbs moisture quickly.

Western White Pine and Eastern White Pine have a slight resin odor when processed. Pine heartwood is classified as having moderate to low rot resistance.

Is pine wood waterproof?

Properties of pine wood | Pine species and uses (4)

No, pine is not a waterproof wood. It soon begins to deteriorate from exposure to moisture and soil. Although no wood is 100% waterproof, some woods withstand moisture well. White oak and teak work well in wet rooms.

Pine absorbs moisture and causes problems such as warping, rotting, cracking, or bending. No client wants to see that in their floors and furniture.

But pinewood can also be made somewhat waterproof. This requires an oil or stain based primer and water seal.

Apply a coat or two of water sealer to a wood surface. Let the parts dry well. Then apply the oil-based primer or stain once or twice with a brush so that the entire piece of wood is well covered. This closes the open pores of the wood and prevents it from absorbing moisture.

Pine wood for smoking meat

Properties of pine wood | Pine species and uses (5)

Pine wood is not suitable for smoking meat because it contains too much of itresin. The resin leaves a sooty black smoke when burned and spoils the flavor and color of the meat. You should never use pine in a meat smoker.

Necessary to be a good smoker, firewood provides good heat. While the density of pine wood is also low because its BTU value is low. The British Thermal Unit (Btu) is a measure of the heat content of a fuel or energy source


Pine is a better type of wood, it has many good qualities. Which are great for furniture, flooring and construction. But it also has some disadvantages for some applications.

Pine is a better choice for interior applications. If you are planning an outdoor woodworking project, use pressure treated pine or consult your woodworking dealer. Pine wood is not suitable for smoking or firewood. Therefore, for smoking it is better to use some hardwood.

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